## Friday, June 30, 2017

### Math Teachers at Play #109 (a blog carnival)

Who is 109?     109 is a twin prime, twinned with 107.    (from numbergossip.com)

If 109 is written in Roman notation (CIX), then it becomes reflectable along the line it is written on.
The pipe organ at the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris has 109 stops.
When chilled below minus 109°F, CO2 becomes a solid, called dry ice.
109 equals the square root of 11881 or 118 - 8 - 1.
The only three-digit prime formed by concatenation of consecutive numbers. [Silva]
109 = 1*2+3*4+5*6+7*8+9. [Silva
The Sun is just over 109 times the diameter of the Earth. [Friedman]
(from https://primes.utm.edu/curios/page.php/109.html)

A Puzzle: Can you make 109 from four 4's? (I don't promise that it's possible...)

At age 109, Augusta Bunge became the youngest living great great great great grandmother. Is that mom to the fifth power?

Math Teachers at Play is a monthly blog carnival, hosted at a different blog each month. I was hoping to give you 109 math links this month, but life intervened (parenting...) long before I got through my storehouse of cool stuff. There are plenty of goodies here, but not as many as I'd hoped.

Books
There has been an explosion of super cool mathy books since I last hosted MTAP. Here are some I know about. I am embarrassed to admit that I haven't read most of them, and so I can't guarantee how cool they are. Let me know in the comments.

Animations

Puzzles & Games

Early Math

Geometry

Probability & Statistics

Writing in Math Class

Math and ...

On Teaching

Random Stuff

I have more but it's bedtime and June is ending. Would you like to see your favorite blog post in next month’s playful math blog carnival? Submissions are always open!

## Tuesday, June 6, 2017

### What I learned at CAP's Community of Practice

CAP is California Acceleration Project. Check out their publications. The first time I attended one of their conferences, I struggled with the word acceleration. It does not mean getting through the material faster. It means getting to the good stuff faster - shortening the pathway of required prerequisite courses students must take before taking a college level course. Their work is mainly with math and English, the two subjects that generally hold students back.

In math, the college level course for someone not interested in STEM is statistics. Students take a placement test, and the large majority (86% at my college) are placed in remedial courses, anywhere from 1 to 4 levels below the statistics course. Imagine a student starting 3 levels below, at pre-algebra, which is where over half of our students are put by the placement test. If we had phenomenal success rates, with 90% passing each course, and phenomenal persistence rates, with 90% going on to the next course, we'd still only get 43% of these students finishing statistics (.9^8 = .43). What happens to the other 57%? Usually they give up on college, for at least a while.

Because housing is pretty segregated in the U.S., and that makes k12 education pretty segregated, with people of color getting less resources dedicated to their schools, this becomes a civil rights issue. CAP is dedicated to:  changing the way we place students (many who do badly on the placement test can still pass a college statistics course), developing models for co-requisite courses that students can take with statistics to improve their success rates, and developing radically shortened and improved remedial pathways (creating a pre-statistics course that prepares students with just enough algebra and lots of data analysis).

I have been attending their workshops whenever I can for the past few years. This past weekend I went with two other math faculty and 5 English faculty. Even though I've seen much of the information before, I still got a lot out of it. (Maybe I'm a slow learner!)

Here's something I put together yesterday at the request of our dean for equity, which summarizes some of the important points I learned...

Planning a High-Impact Course

More important than any one course are these 3 principles:
• Create separate pathways for STEM and non-STEM.
• Place students as high in the sequence as possible.
• Shorten the sequence as much as possible.

CAP’s 5 design principles
1. Backward design
2. Low-stakes, collaborative practice
3. Relevant, thinking-oriented curriculum
4. Just-in-time remediation
5. Intentional support for affective needs

High Performing Math Classrooms (Internationally)
James Stigler on high performing math countries.
All have these things in common:
• Productive struggle
• Explicit connections
• Deliberate practice, increasing variation and complexity over time

Lesson Planning (CAP)
Given a topic you want students to learn through groupwork,
• Identify the prerequisite skills needed,
• Decide whether these will be addressed through productive struggle (ie not addressed overtly), targeted group activity, or just-in-time mini-lecture, and how you’ll do that,
• Plan main activity,
• Plan closure (vital for making explicit connections)
• Note: Over-scaffolding brings down the thinking level required.
• (Sue has a form from CAP. If this link works, it’s to all the CAP materials: https://app.box.com/s/965xg12luwsgjgmeq86px8oonsr9yolm )

Thinking Levels
The thinking levels mentioned above come from a study by Quasar. Here’s the relevant info:
“This research yielded two major findings: (1) mathematical tasks with high-level cognitive demands were the most difficult to implement well, frequently being transformed into less-demanding tasks during instruction; and (2) student learning gains were greatest in classrooms in which instructional tasks consistently encouraged high-level student thinking and reasoning and least in classrooms in which instructional tasks were consistently procedural in nature.” (Stein p. 4)

Lower-Level Cognitive Demand
Involve either reproducing previously learned fact, rules, formula, or definitions;
Cannot be solved using procedures because a procedure does not exist or because the time frame in which the task is being completed is too short to use a procedure;
Not ambiguous; clear and direct instructions to reproduce previous material;
No connection to the concepts or meaning that underlie the fact, rules, formula, or definitions.

Algorithmic; direct instructions to use a procedure or the use of the procedure is evident based on prior instruction, experience, or placement of the task.
Require limited cognitive demand for successful completion.
There is little ambiguity about what needs to be done and how to do it.
No connections to concepts or meaning that underlie the procedure being used.
Focused on correct answers rather than developing mathematical or statistical understanding.
Require no explanations, but may require students to “show work”.

Higher-Level Cognitive Demand
Focus students’ attention on the use of procedures or concepts for the purpose of developing deeper levels of understanding of mathematical or statistical concepts and ideas.
Suggest pathways to follow (explicitly or implicitly) that are broad general procedures that have close connections to underlying conceptual ideas as opposed to narrow algorithms that are opaque with respect to underlying concepts.
Usually are represented in multiple ways (e.g. graphs, tables, numerical summaries, verbal descriptions).
Making connections among multiple representations helps to develop meaning.
Require some degree of cognitive effort.
Although general procedures may be followed, they cannot be followed mindlessly.
Students need to engage with the conceptual ideas that underlie the procedures in order to successfully complete the task and develop understanding.

Require complex and non-algorithmic thinking (i.e. there is not a predictable, well-rehearsed approach or pathway explicitly suggested by the task, task instructions, or a worked-out example).
Require students to explore and understand the nature of mathematical or statistical concepts, processes, or relationships.
Demand self-monitoring or self-regulation of one’s own cognitive processes.
Require students to access and make appropriate use of relevant knowledge and experiences
Require students to analyze the task and actively examine task constraints that may limit possible solution strategies and solutions.
Require considerable cognitive effort and may involve some level of anxiety for the student due to the unpredictable nature of the solution process required.

## Saturday, March 4, 2017

### At the Julia Robinson Math Festival Today

Julia Robinson Math Festivals invite kids to play with math puzzles that start easy and offer harder questions as you go along. Today's festival was at Bentley School in Lafayette. (Some festivals are open to the public, and are much bigger.)

I was working the Pilgrim's Puzzle table. We had this puzzle to work on.

It was really fun watching kids and parents get engaged with it. Some paths give you fractions, and then taking away 2 can give you something like 1/8 - 2, which can be pretty confusing for a 3rd grader.

The first time I tried to help a kid with a problem like that I was not able to find an image that made this sensible. When B was stuck with a problem like this, I came up with anti-matter apples. It worked! We imagined 1/8th of an apple, and imagined two anti-matter apples. We cut the 2nd one into 8 pieces, took one of those pieces and exploded it with the regular 1/8th slice to make a poof and then nothing. So we had one anti-matter apple and ... 7/8ths of another, which we wrote as -1 7/8. Done.

I will be teaching beginning algebra in the fall. I don't think I've ever found an image for negative fractions that worked as well as I think this one will. I'm excited.

Here's B and me.

## Tuesday, December 20, 2016

### The Cat in Numberland is Back in Print

One of my favorite mathy kids' books is back in print. In The Cat in Numberland we visit Hotel Infinity, with its infinite rooms, all full and yet they always seem to be able to make room for new guests.

Good for ages 5 to adult. (It's \$19.95 plus over \$9 shipping. I think they should charge less for this slim volume, but this book is so wonderful, it's worth it.)

## Sunday, October 16, 2016

### Fun Question from Michelle at Prairie Creek Community School

"Recently in math, we were working on the Deka Tree, a tree that has 10 trunks with 10 branches with 10 twigs with 10 leaves.  One trunk, one branch, one twig, and one leaf is cut off...how many leaves are left?"

I found this question in Michelle's post about doing Forest School. And she talked more about it in this post.

I have over fifty tabs open with interesting goodies. I hope to find time soon to sort them out and share...

## Sunday, August 21, 2016

### Calculus: From Secant Lines to the Tangent

Our semester began on Monday. I'm teaching Calculus I (as always, because it's my favorite class), Statistics, and Algebra for Statistics. All three classes were a joy to teach this week, even though I was a bit underprepared because of the chaos in my personal life.

On Thursday I was working on wrapping up the exercise from Active Calculus that the students had been working on since Tuesday. I showed the velocity curve we'd been exploring on Desmos, and limited the domain to the appropriate times, 0 to 3 seconds (which I learned how to do with the face project I described in my previous blog post). I had a little trouble remembering how to make a secant line attached to one stable point and one moving point, but I got it. (And helped the students get it. This took some hard thinking for many of them.)

Then I had a wonderful surprise. When I pulled the moving point over the stable point, the line disappeared and Desmos said "x= undefined or undefined" (not sure where their stutter came from...). I gasped. I hadn't expected that, and it was a perfect way to start talking about this problem calculus has of needing two points to figure slope, but needing to use just one point from the function in order to have a tangent. I got to talk about Newton and Bishop Berkeley and fluxions and infinitely close. It was great fun for me. On Monday I'll find out how much the students got out of it.

### Calculus: Reviewing Functions with Desmos

I like to dive into the calculus ideas in my calc I course, so I do not start with review. (I use a just-in-time approach, reviewing what we need when we need it.)

But I know that the students' understanding of functions is weak and needs to be brought to mind. So I was excited about having them outline their own faces in Desmos as a homework assignment, which I learned about at Twitter Math Camp from Deb Boden (@debboden).

Here are my instructions:
Desmos Graph of Yourself
1. Set up an account on desmos.com. (It’s free.)
2. Upload a selfie into desmos. (Click the + in the upper left corner of the desmos calculator screen to add your image. Photos with you facing front are easiest to use.)
3. Use various functions to outline features of your face. (At least: lines, arcs of circles and ellipses, parabolas, and trig functions. Try including exponential and log functions, hyperbolas, and cubics.)
4. When you’re done, you can hide your photo to display the icon you’ve created. You can also hide the axes by clicking on the wrench in the upper right corner.
5. Add a link to your completed desmos work on our class google doc: [Link removed, for student privacy. I didn't need google, actually. They could have submitted directly to Canvas. But we may need the google doc for our viewable collection.] (My icon is linked there. You can check it out to figure out how to do this.)
6. We’ll share these in class and see how many classmates everyone can recognize.
Every time I got stuck, I googled my question. For example, "Desmos function restrictions" helped me make short pieces of the curves I used. If you are still stuck, start a discussion item here.

Rubric
50% Required function types  (lines, arcs of circles and ellipses, parabolas, and trig functions) 10% each (Extras can bring this score up to 60%)
15%   Good Match with Photo
15% Visually Engaging
20% for using Desmos and Canvas (our "learning management system")

(I didn't post the rubric until after they turned in their work, but I will next time.)

31 out of 44 students turned it in. I am loving Canvas, which our college just started using. (We used d2l before and I hated it. Yes, I have strong feelings about things.) I took hours grading this, but once I get good at it, I think I could do this in about an hour. Canvas made it easy. And now I know that a third of my class is having trouble. So I know I need to intervene somehow. Good information to have.

Here are some of my favorites...

## Friday, July 22, 2016

### My Favorites: Becoming Invisible & Math Relax

On the last day of Twitter Math Camp 2016, I got to do a ten-minute presentation about two of my favorite teaching ideas. This is a quick way for me to share the links.

Becoming Invisible  is a great collection of things you can say when you're trying to hand the floor over to the students.

Math Relax is my audio track to help students get over the anxiety some of them feel during math tests. After my talk, people mentioned some lovely anxiety-busters, including giving the student a nice stone to play with. I might just make a basket of magic calming stones...

## Wednesday, April 13, 2016

### Kahoot

I heard about Kahoot from my colleague, who heard about it from his wife who teaches third grade. It's a game site with lots of content already available.  I looked up logarithms yesterday, found a kahoot* I liked, and played it with my pre-calculus class.

[To find a kahoot you like, choose Public Kahoots in the black bar at the top, search on a term like logarithms, click on"Only show Kahoots made by teachers?", and search the list. I've been looking for the ones with high counts on the favourites list, but I might find better criteria later. Once you find one you like, favorite it right away. There doesn't seem to be an easy mechanism to get back to it later.]

We are about 2/3 rds of the way through the semester. The energy is a bit low about now. This game livened things up and kept us focused on mathematical ideas. The students loved it.

This evening, I made a pretty simple kahoot to go along with my murder mystery, which we're starting in precalc right now. I'll use this kahoot next week, when we're farther along in the murder mystery.

______
*A kahoot is a gamified quiz. Each question is set up with multiple answers. Students use a pin shown on the screen to sign in using their phones. They get points for right answers based on how quickly they answer.

## Monday, March 7, 2016

### A Huge Bunch of Lovely Links

I have so many tabs with cool math posts, I don't know if I can possibly get them all into this collection. (I never seem to have enough time to finish, and then more goodies accumulate.)

Math & Teaching Ideas I might use

Problem Solving

Using Desmos
• An introduction to desmos
• Linearization in Calculus, an amazingly detailed lesson using desmos, with commentary about how students did with it
• I do a unit in trig called Days Of Our Lives, using minutes of daylight on each day of the year as data, and getting students to construct an equation for it. This Moon Illumination project someone made on desmos using the activity builder looks like something I could imitate. (Where did they get their data? Who made this?)
• Desmos art project

On Teaching

Science

Statistics

Estimation & Elementary

Math for Parents

Social Justice

Playing with Math
• As usual,  this game (called this game is about squares) is more about logic than about math. What I'm finding interesting is how impossible it seems, and then when I (and others) go away and come back, it can suddenly seem so easy.
•  Tracy Zager wrote a great post on evaluating math fact apps. Lots of good ones are mentioned in the comments. [My comment: I would really love to be able to find this app online so I can recommend it. I have this game on my phone. It seems to be called 1 Whole. There are rectangular shapes that fill with liquid. You push one toward another and they go together if the sum is less than or equal to one. You watch the liquid rise. If it’s 1, it goes away and you get points. You keep going until the screen is full of things that won’t combine (sum > 1). There is no time pressure, the conceptual basis seems strong to me, and mistakes aren’t allowed. No penalties, no bad sounds, it just won’t work. I think it’s pretty good. I wish I could find it online. Cna anyone help me?]
• Kids like doing the simple math involved in thinking about the Collatz Conjecture. [Start with any number (whole,  >1). If odd, triple it and add 1. If even, cut in half. Repeat. Does this always end up at 1? Conjecture is 'yes'.] Mathematicians don't know the answer, but they like to explore the question in sophisticated ways. Here's a post on what sorts of functions come close to modeling the number of steps it takes to get to 1 from each number.
• This game would have made it into my book, I think. Cross Over looks like it has enough strategy to entertain us jaded adults, and it's for addition and subtraction practice. Coolo.
• Not math. Go. Learning to play go
• New game for iphone (really, it's logic not math), Ringiana
• I love surreal numbers. I need to come back and read this more carefully when I have more time to play with it.
• A silly little game. Totally violates Tracy's criteria (nothing timed). But mathy folk may like it. How many primes can you identify in a minute (with no mistakes)?  (Use y and n for y and no.)

Books
• Here's a great list of fun math books, compiled with a 14-year-old in mind, but almost all good for adult mathophiles too. I think this list came from the same question and has a different set of books.
• My publisher is having a sale. All 5 books published by Natural Math for \$50 total. What a great way to expand your playful math collection.